Working time and work organization

The subject of working time has been central to the work of the ILO since its inception, when it adopted the first of many international labour standards, the Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No.1). Some of the major challenges in this area remain those which have been important since the dawn of the industrial age: excessive hours of work and the need to protect workers’ health and safety by limiting working hours and providing adequate periods for rest and recuperation, including weekly rest and paid annual leave - which are enshrined in international labour standards. more...

Key publications

  1. Working time and work-life balance around the world

    Working Time and Work-Life Balance Around the World provides a comprehensive review of both main aspects of working time – working hours and working time arrangements (also called work schedules) – and their effects on workers' work-life balance.

  2. Healthy and safe telework: technical brief

    New analysis from the ILO and WHO sets out recommendations for safe and productive hybrid and teleworking.

  3. Practical Guide on Teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond

    The purpose of the Guide is to provide practical and actionable recommendations for effective teleworking. More information

  4. Telework in the 21st century: An evolutionary perspective

    This insightful book offers a new conceptual framework explaining the evolution of telework over four decades. More information

  5. Guide to developing balanced working time arrangements

    This guide or manual is designed to assist organizations, both private and public, to make informed decisions regarding how to structure working time arrangements in a “balanced” manner for the mutual benefit of both workers and enterprises.

  6. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 104

    Overtime work: A review of literature and initial empirical analysis

    Overtime is normally defined as working hours that are done in addition to normal (legislated) working hours during a day or a week. In many countries it may be compensated by overtime premium pay, which can play a role in worker remuneration.

  7. Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of work

    This report considers the impact of telework/ICT-mobile work on the world of work. It synthesises research carried out by Eurofound’s network of European correspondents and ILO country experts.

  8. Decent working time: Balancing workers' needs with business requirements.

    Each dimension of working time improves work-life balance while simultaneously making enterprises more competitive.