Employment-Intensive Investment in


Employment-Intensive Investment Programme activities in Tanzania

Current EIIP Involvement

Tanzania is currently implementing the Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) Programme, under the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF), which is one of the Government’s key initiatives for operationalizing social protection in Tanzania. The objective of the PSSN Programme is to increase income security and opportunities while improving consumption of poor households. In eight districts, the PSSN incorporates a component where cash transfers are linked to participation in public works to allow households earn additional income to meet their basic needs during the lean agricultural season (September to December). There is also a plan to scale up the geographical coverage of TASAF Public Works by extending to 44 districts in the coming year.

The ILO has been providing technical assistance and guidance to implement TASAF-PSSN program in the two components of livelihood enhancement as well as the Employment Intensive Investment Programmes (EIIP) by ensuring these components are implemented as per set standards and bring desired benefits to target groups. The ILO, in collaboration with OECD and EU-SPS, has supported TASAF in assessing the achievement of its public works component using the inter-agency social protection assessment tools for the public works (ISPA-PW). The tool provides practical means to determine effectiveness of social protection and public works programmes and identify gaps and recommendations as to how these can be addressed.

The assessment was carried out in September 2016 and its findings show that the public works component is key in providing livelihood support to the participating households. The assessment has also identified challenges in the delivery of the public works component in PSNP. These include, among others:
  • lack of capacity of participating regions and districts in the planning, implementation and monitoring of public works;
  • substandard quality of assets created;
  • lack of maintenance on the infrastructure/assets created; and
  • lack of access for training
Currently the ILO, through the EIIP, is mobilizing to start a project, “Inclusive Growth, Social Protection and Jobs” funded by the Irish Government. The project will address these challenges through working with national partners including relevant sector ministries, local authorities (both regional and district), Technical Training institutions, TASAF programme, and supporting (or building on) the on-going initiatives. The primary focus of the employment intensive component is to strengthen the national capacity for the coordination and implementation of TASAF public works component in order to expand social protection coverage in rural and peri-urban areas. The ILO will leverage its established working relationship with government institutions and local knowledge to support sector-based technical training centres and higher learning institutions to provide training to regions and districts involved in the implementation of PSNP. The ILO will also introduce appropriate and local-resource-based technologies that are amenable for the creation of jobs.

Historical Information

Taking Labour-based Technology to Scale
In 2004, the Government of the Republic of Tanzania launched a programme for the establishment of a National Framework for Labour-based Technology. The ILO Sub Regional Office (SRO), Addis and ASIST provided advice for the preparation of the programme, prepared under the auspices of the Ministry of Works. The programme supports the wide spread adoption of labour-based technology (LBT) and it works to set up a national focal centre/point for LBT that will spearhead all coordination, linkages and relations as well as information/data collection and dissemination to all stakeholders.

Macro- economic study
In the same year, a study on the macro-economic potential of labour-based was carried out by the Sub Regional Office Addis jointly with ASIST, the ILO Area Office in Dar es Salaam and the Employment Intensive Investment Branch (EIIP). The study entailed making a comparative analysis of a number of on-going and completed feeder roads projects in Tanzania using different technologies (both labour-based and equipment based methods) and to show the macro-economic impact on the Gross Domestic Product, the balance of payments, and on the employment situation. The study found that labour-based methods were more economically and financially favourable than equipment-based methods and generate more employment and household income.

Past labour-based rural roadwork’s programmes
In 1986 to 1991, the ILO supported the Rural Road Maintenance Programme in the Tanga and Mbeya Regions. This programme was experimental, with innovative work methods such as payment systems and animal haulage among others etc, undertaken particularly in the Tanga Region. In 1991, a national programme under the major Integrated Roads Project (IRP) succeeded this programme. A complementary project aiming to develop the private sector’s capacity to carry out road rehabilitation and maintenance was initiated in 1992 in the Kilimanjaro Region with funding from the World Bank, UNDP and USAID. It was later expanded to the Shinyanga, Mwanza and Arusha regions with continuing input from UNDP and UNCDF. The National Construction Council (NCC) implemented the project with ILO technical assistance.

From 1988 to 1994, the ILO was also involved in the road component of a NORAD-funded rural development programme in the Rukwa Region. The aim of the project was to demonstrate and introduce labour-based road maintenance systems with emphasis on community participation. The project demonstrated the possibilities of labour-based methods from a technical point of view but also showed the difficulties with community involvement in the rehabilitation and, particularly, maintenance of local roads, which were in this case mainly district roads.

Rural Access and Mobility
The Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project (MIRTP), funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, improved the accessibility in the Makete District in Tanzania. The first project period focused on defining the demand for transport and identifying potential interventions in the transport sector. Transport and non-transport interventions were implemented based on the identified transport demand. The activities included: manufacture and introduction of low-cost transport devices; improvement of feeder roads, paths and tracks; and setting up a mechanical workshop for maintenance services to motorized grinding mills. These activities were institutionalised within the existing governmental and non-governmental organizations. The most successful activities were supported during a follow-up phase from 1993 to 1997. The final evaluation was carried out in early 1998. The experiences gained from MIRTP were used to design the ongoing Village Travel and Transport Project (VTTP), which is a national programme implemented in eight districts. MIRTP also provided lessons for the development of the gender-integrated Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning tool (IRAP), available in both English and Swahili versions. These guidelines have been used for planning of VTTP interventions in some districts.

Employment creation in Municipal Service Delivery Programme
This programme, launched in Dar es Salaam in January 2004, aims at building more local capacity to deal with the challenges of employment creation and service delivery for the urban poor. It seeks to illustrate public-private partnerships between municipal governments, and locally based representative organization can result in the creation of jobs that are free of child labour, have adequate working conditions and benefit the marginalized members of society. The programme builds upon past ILO initiatives in the city of Dar es Salaam to involve the private sector in municipal service delivery. The programme helps strengthen municipal authorities’ capacity to establish systems for small enterprise-based service delivery and helps develop contracting procedures and monitoring and evaluation systems, as well as policy development support, resource mobilization and information sharing and dissemination. The experiences learnt here have been shared with cities in Kenya and Uganda, and similar pilot initiatives to replicate the lessons have been initiated in the municipalities of Nakuru and Nyahururu in Kenya and in Jinja municipality in Uganda.

Hanna Nassif Community-based Urban Upgrading Project
In March 1994, the Dar es Salaam City Council and the ILO initiated a project in the Hanna Nassif unplanned settlement (in Dar es Salaam) to improve living conditions there through community-managed and labour-based infrastructure upgrading. The project activities consisted of the construction of lined storm water drains and access roads, solid waste management and community and municipal capacity building. The infrastructure works were implemented through community contracts with technical assistance from a national project team. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Ford Foundation funded the project with technical support from the ILO, UN-Habitat and UNV (United Nations Volunteers). Phase II of Hanna Nassif started in June 1997,ended in 2000 and was executed by the University College of Lands and Architectural Studies (UCLAS) and the National Income Generation Programme (NIGP) with technical assistance from ILO ASIST.

The project, which focused on building local capacity to improve local infrastructure, involved:
  • Community participation, i.e., involving the community through the establishment of Community Development Committees (CDC) in all levels of the project from planning and implementation to operation and maintenance;
  • Innovative and participatory design of infrastructure to fit within the existing environment and requirements of residents and that maximises the use of local resources; and
  • The use of labour-based methods and community contracts to maximise the benefit to the local community. 
The key achievements of the programmes include:
  • Improved infrastructure: 750 m of main and 6 km of side drains; 1.5 km of road, 26 road crossing; 127 footbridges; 2.5 km of water pipes and 8 water kiosks were constructed.
  • Improved health: The drains and roads constructed reduced the incidence of flooding and water borne diseases.
  • Increase in employment: 17,467 work days were created within the community – 43% for women. The improved infrastructure and services have resulted in opening up the area for local business development creating further jobs and income. A credit scheme was also set up managed by the community.
  • Development of skills: 3,155 people (with 35% women) were trained in institution building, construction skills and credit management. The skills and experience gained during the project have assisted the residents secure jobs elsewhere in the construction industry and have been shared with other community groups in other settlements.
  • Increased institutions: The community development committee was established, strengthened and registered as an association, which continues to address problems within the community such as water supply and solid waste management.
Pemba Small Scale Irrigation Project
This irrigation project started in 1987 in the Northern Region of Pemba (Zanzibar) with financial support from the EU and technical assistance from the ILO. Its overall objective was to improve the living and working conditions of the rural poor population of the districts of Micheweni and Wete through improved income and food security, resulting from increased employment opportunities and intensified agriculture. The project ended in 1999 and emphasised the operation and maintenance requirements and need for support for the water users associations.

Working conditions study
A study into working conditions and a review of procurement issues for small solid waste collection franchisees in Dar es Salaam were carried out in 2003 to inform future support to the creation of decent jobs through urban service delivery.