Working papers

  1. ILO Working paper 98

    Mortality from COVID-19 in the US : Did unions save lives?

    08 November 2023

    This paper combines data from the NVSS with the CPS into a unique dataset to answer the question on whether unions saved lives during the COVID-19 Pandemic. It finds that if the United States had the union density of 35 percent that it had in 1954 instead of today’s rate of 10 percent, the COVID-19 mortality rate for working people would have been 19 per 100,000 instead of the 26 actually observed.

  2. ILO Working Paper 97

    A global fund for social protection. Lessons from the diverse experiences of global health, agriculture and climate funds

    06 October 2023

    This study aims to understand the experiences of setting up global funds across the health, climate and agriculture sectors and identify lessons to be learned from them that can guide further thinking about the implementation of a prospective global fund for social protection.

  3. ILO Working paper 96

    Generative AI and Jobs: A global analysis of potential effects on job quantity and quality

    21 August 2023

    This study assesses the potential global exposure of occupations to Generative AI, particularly GPT-4. It predicts that the overwhelming effect of the technology will be to augment occupations, rather than to automate them. The greatest impact is likely to be in high and upper-middle income countries due to a higher share of employment in clerical occupations. As clerical jobs are an important source of female employment, the effects are highly gendered. Insights from this study underline the need for proactive policies that focus on job quality, ensure fair transitions, and that are based on dialogue and adequate regulation.

  4. ILO Working paper 95

    Artificial intelligence in human resource management: a challenge for the human-centred agenda?

    25 July 2023

    This paper offers guidance as to when and where the use of AI in HRM should be encouraged, and where it is likely to cause more problems than it solves.

  5. ILO Working paper 94

    Who creates jobs with broad skillsets? The crucial role of firms

    26 June 2023

    Using matched firm-level and online job vacancy data from India, this study finds significant heterogeneity in skill requirements across firms within the same occupations. It also shows that more competitive and innovative firms require digital skills and specific combinations of digital and other skills. The study highlights that firms are not passive recipients of new technologies, but rather play a crucial role in defining the changing nature of work.

  6. ILO Working paper 93

    Digital transformation of social security administration and services: A comparative analysis of Australia, Canada, Denmark and France

    19 June 2023

  7. ILO Working paper 92

    Occupational Safety and Health, Frontline Workers, and the COVID-19 Pandemic in the U.S.

    07 June 2023

    The Report provides an overview of U.S. occupational safety and health and related laws providing protection to workers in the US; traces the effects of the pandemic on workers in the U.S. and reviews the federal agencies’ and states’ responses to the risk of COVID-19 within workplaces.

  8. ILO Working paper 91

    Jobs and global supply chains in South-East Asia

    07 June 2023

    South-East Asia has become a key player in global supply chains (GSCs) during recent decades, and the region’s participation in GSCs has had a profound impact on labour markets. The region has become increasingly dependent on GSCs for employment despite some short periods of sharp volatility and setbacks, including in 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

  9. ILO Working paper 90

    OSH and the COVID-19 pandemic: A legal analysis

    15 March 2023

    This study provides an analysis of how occupational safety and health (OSH) regulation responded to the circumstances of key workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

  10. ILO Working paper 89

    What has been driving work-to-work transitions in the emerging world? – A comparative study of Indonesia and South Africa

    23 March 2023

    This paper examines the shape, prominence and drivers of work-to-work transitions in South Africa and Indonesia – two middle-income countries with similar development levels yet different labour market characteristics.